蛋黄可以吃吗?蛋黄健康吗?

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很多年前,有研究表明,血液中胆固醇含量是心脏病的一个风险因素,人民开始控制食物中胆固醇的摄入,蛋黄是胆固醇含量比较高的食物,所以蛋黄惨遭愚蠢的人类抛弃很多年。

最近几年,整个营养界都开始为之正名了,最先发起证明是美国,2015版美国居民膳食指南撤销对胆固醇摄入的限制,原因就是很多研究表面,食源性胆固醇对血液中胆固醇的含量影响非常小,但是值得一提的是,胆固醇本身仍然是心血管健康的潜在威胁。

 

2016年5月13日由国家卫生计生委疾控局发布的《中国膳食指南》,明确指出,不要扔掉蛋黄,每天摄入1枚完整鸡蛋不会增加冠心病及中风的发病风险。

 


下面是我找的一些英文资料,翻译的中英文版,请各位参考。

一,The Incredible Edible Egg Yolk  牛逼的蛋黄,放心吃吧

  • Nutritional Benefits of Eating Whole Eggs 整个鸡蛋的营养分析

Egg yolks are often put on the hypothetical”Do Not Eat List” due to their relatively high amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol. In spite of the constant shunning of egg yolks, they canbe a very healthy inclusion to a well-balanced diet, as they are a high-qualitysource of vital nutrients, many of which aren’t found in other foods. Here aresome of the many nutritional benefits of eating eggs with their yolks included.

蛋黄总是被人质疑,被很多所谓的健身人士鄙弃,因为他们觉得蛋黄富含有饱和脂肪酸和胆固醇,不管多少人不喜欢它,它所存在的营养价值是毋庸置疑的,它富含高质量的重要营养,很多的营养物质在其他食物中很难找到,下面我列举一些蛋黄中的营养物质,和多吃蛋黄的好处。

  • Boosts Levels of Essential Nutrients 增加实际营养物质的营养水平

The yolks of eggs are a valuable source ofnumerous essential vitamins and minerals including water-soluble vitamins (vitaminsB2, B12, and choline), phosphorus, and iodine. It’s also a potent source ofselenium, which is the antioxidant that works with vitamin E to protect thebody’s cells from the damaging effects of free radicals.

蛋黄中富含各种维生素,矿物质,包含水溶性维生素(维生素 B2,B12,和胆碱),磷,和碘,还是硒的一种重要来源,硒和维生素E一起工作保护体内自由基不受损害,达到抗老化的效果。

  • Promotes Strong Bones and Teeth 强化我们的骨骼和牙齿

Egg yolks are one of only a few foods thatnaturally contain vitamin D. Vitamin D is necessary for the proper absorptionof calcium, which is crucial for the formation and maintenance of strong bonesand teeth. One egg yolk contains about 40 international units (IU) of therecommended 600 per day.

蛋黄是自然含有维生素D的少有的集中食物之一,维生素D关系到钙的充分吸收与否,钙含量的高低对骨骼和牙齿的硬度有直接的影响,按照国际标准,一天中推荐600个国际标准单位的维生素D,一个鸡蛋含有40个维他命D。(但是这并不是说一天要吃10几个鸡蛋)

  • Encourages the Maintenance of Lean Muscle Mass 保持肌肉的质量

Whole eggs contain all the essential aminoacids making it a beneficial food source of high-quality protein. Adequateprotein consumption is essential for building and maintaining lean muscle mass.This is especially important if you’re trying to manage your weight or if youregularly engage in exercise training.

整个鸡蛋含有所有必须的氨基酸,是高质量蛋白质的重要来源,足够的蛋白质摄入对维持肌肉非常重要,如果你想控制体重,定期做力量训练的话,吃鸡蛋也非常重要。

 

  • Helps in the Maintenance of Eye and Skin Health 帮助维持眼睛和皮肤的健康

Egg yolks house substantial amounts of two specific carotenoids (or natural pigments): lutein and zeaxanthin. Thesecarotenoids protect against eye damage and vision loss by reducing the risk of cataracts and macular degeneration. Lutein and zeaxanthin may also prevent premature aging of the skin by reducing free radical damage associated with excessive sun exposure.

蛋黄含有两种类胡萝卜素,叶黄素和玉米黄质,这种类胡萝卜素保护眼睛,降低白内障和黄斑变性的风险,叶黄素和玉米黄质可以降低过度日晒后自由基损害,还能防止皮肤变老。

 

  • Supports Weight Loss 有利于减肥

There are only 70-80 calories in one wholeegg making it an excellent food choice for weight loss. In addition, due totheir protein content, eating egg yolks and whites can reduce hunger, increasefullness, and help prevent overeating throughout the day (click here for moreways to naturally suppress hunger and reduce appetite.

一个鸡蛋只有70-80卡路里,是减肥的最佳选择,还有,因为蛋白质丰富,吃蛋黄和蛋白能提高饱腹感,从而达到减肥的效果。


二,Five Reasons Not to Toss the Egg Yolks 五个不扔掉蛋黄的原因

 

Ever since elevated serumcholesterol wasfound to be a risk factor for heart disease, people have beenlimited foodshigh in dietary cholesterol. Eggs are one of the foods richest incholesterol,containing about 200 mg each, and this is contributed solely by theyolk.However, research has shown that dietary cholesterol does not play a majorrolein raising serum cholesterol as was once believed and that egg yolks areinfact good for heart health. Eggs are often a staple food for peoplefollowinglow-carb diets because they are very low in carbohydrates. Instead ofeatingegg substitute or throwing away egg yolks and eating only the whites,consumethe entire egg to get all the benefits of this wonderful food.

很久以前,有人发现,血液中胆固醇含量是心脏病的一个风险因素,人民开始控制食物中胆固醇的摄入,蛋黄是胆固醇含量比较高的食物(大约每个鸡蛋含有200mg),近些年,遭到了很多人的抛弃,但是,最近的研究表面,食物中的胆固醇摄入,对血液中胆固醇的含量影响微乎其微,实际上,蛋黄对心脏病的健康是有益的,鸡蛋含有非常低的碳水化合物,应该是健康人士的首选,所以,不要再嫌弃鸡蛋了,或者只吃蛋清不吃蛋黄,吃下整个鸡蛋,开始享受这个美食带来的好处吧,下面告诉你五个不扔掉蛋黄的原因

 

1. Egg yolks contain essentialfatty acids 蛋黄中含有人体必需的脂肪酸

Our bodies can make most of the fatsweneed, but there are certain fatty acids that are considered essential,meaningwe need to consume them in our food in order to survive. The two classesofessential fatty acids are omega 3 and omega 6. Egg yolks contain both omega3fats (in the form of the long-chain fatty acid docosahexanoic acid, or DHA)andomega 6 fats (as arachidonic acid, or AA). These fats are necessary forproperbrain function, immunity, healthy skin, and reproduction.

人体能自动生成很多我们需要的脂肪,但是有些脂肪酸被认为是非常必要的,我们需要从食物中摄取,来维持身体的健康,两种脂肪酸欧米茄3和欧米茄6对人体非常重要,蛋黄中含有这两种不饱和脂肪酸,他们对大脑的功能,免疫系统,皮肤,再生系统的正常运转非常重要。

 

2. Egg yolks contain vitamin K2  蛋黄含有维生素K2

Vitamin K2 plays an important rolein hearthealth and bone health by directing calcium away from the heart, whereit cancontribute to atherosclerotic plaque, and toward the bone, where it canimprovebone density and reduce the risk for osteoporosis.

维生素K2对心脏和骨骼的健康非常重要,可以把心脏中的钙清除,钙会引起动脉硬化,可以提高骨密度和降低骨质疏松的风险。

 

3. Egg yolks contain moremicronutrientsthan the whites do 蛋黄比蛋白含有更多的营养物质

The yolk portion of the egg ishigher inmost vitamins and minerals than the white, with theexception ofpotassium, magnesium, and niacin. In addition to vitamin K2, yolkscontain allof the other fat-soluble vitamins: A, D, and E.

蛋黄中的维生素和矿物质都远超蛋白,钾,镁,烟酸除外,蛋黄除了富含维生素K2,还含有其他的脂溶性维生素A,D,E。

 

4. Egg yolks contain choline 蛋黄富含胆碱

Choline, a form of B vitamin, formsaportion of cell membranes, is vital for proper liver and nerve function,andplays an important role in preventing neural tube defects in pregnancy.Eggyolks are rich in this essential nutrient.

胆碱是维生素B的一种形式,对肝脏和神经系统来说至关重要,对孕妇而言可以预防神经管缺陷,蛋黄中含有丰富的必要维生素。

5. Egg yolks contain carotenoids 蛋黄中富含类胡萝卜素 

Carotenoids are yellow-orangepigments typically found in plant foods like carrots, apricots, and yams.However, eggyolks also contain carotenoids, which function as antioxidants in the body and may reduce the risk for lung and other cancers. The carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin are important for maintaining eye health and are particularly protective against macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness.

有抗氧化功能,降低患肺癌的风险,有利于眼睛健康,防止黄斑变性(导致失眠的只要原因)

Eggs are one of nature’s most perfect foods: rich in many important nutrients, versatile, and an inexpensive source of high-quality protein. For optimal health, eat the whole egg the way nature provided it.

鸡蛋是自然界最完美的食物,营养丰富,简直多才多艺,便宜又实惠,是自然界给我们最大的恩惠,不要再抛弃蛋黄了,愚蠢的人类

另外,为鸡蛋正名比较有名气的博士JONNY BOWDEN,他指出,蛋黄中的胆固醇和你血液中的胆固醇含量没有半毛钱关系,the cholesterol in eggs has virtually no effect on the cholesterol in your blood.(8)

还有,英格兰医学期刊(NEJM)上有人做了一个实验,一个88岁的老头,每天吃25个鸡蛋,最后做身体检查,各项指标没有任何问题。

interesting case study (a study with only one individual). It was an 88 year old man who consumed 25 eggs per day.He had normal cholesterol levels and was in very good health.(9)

看完文章之后,你是不是在想,谁都可以随便吃蛋黄了,随便摄入胆固醇?非也,哈佛公共卫生学研的Dr. Walter Willett博士专门为胆固醇写了一篇有关胆固醇的评论,文中指出,严重的心脏病和糖尿病患者,还是建议鸡蛋和胆固醇的摄入量不要太高。(11)

 

写在后面

鸡蛋中的主要矿物质,维生素,微量元素等都在蛋黄中,蛋白主要是蛋白质,只要蛋白质,放弃其他的营养是不可取的。

但是,如果你超过五十岁了,还是不要过多的摄入过多的胆固醇,鸡蛋的话如果你真喜欢,没有其他疾病要求不能吃鸡蛋,那你就随便吃吧,反正目前没有科学证明一天只能吃两个鸡蛋,或者一个鸡蛋。

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REF:

“However, a number of recent studies indicated that the relationship between dietary cholesterol intake, serum lipid levels, and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is not nearly as strong as reported previously. ” (1)
“Many studies reported over the past 2 years have shown that dietary cholesterol is not a significant factor in an individual’s plasma cholesterol level or cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. “(2)
Many factors contributed to this position but a primary element was the belief that total dietary fat and saturated fat were primary dietary determinants of serum total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, not dietary cholesterol. (3)
“Increasing dietary cholesterol did not appear to result in an increased atherogenic potential of postprandial serum, as assessed by effects on cultured macrophages.”(4)
Daily egg consumption for 12 wk increases serum TC and LDL-C concentrations in women but not markers for inflammation, endothelial activity, and liver function.(5)

http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/healthy-eating-plate-vs-usda-myplate/.(6)

https://supertracker.usda.gov/.(7)

WebMD Health News Reviewed by Arefa Cassoobhoy, MD, MPH

By Kathleen Doheny.(8)

http://www.cholesterol-and-health.com/Egg_Yolk.html

8

Normal Plasma Cholesterol in an 88-Year-Old Man Who Eats 25 Eggs a Day — Mechanisms of Adaptation(9)

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM199103283241306(9)

https://authoritynutrition.com/how-many-eggs-should-you-eat/(10)

Ask the Expert with Dr. Walter Willett: Cholesterol https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2015/02/25/ask-the-expert-with-dr-walter-willett-cholesterol/ (11)

7

原文地址:http://www.chinalowcarb.com/egg-yolk/

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